Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables


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1 OpenStaxCNX module: m Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStaxCNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 In this section, you will: Abstract Solve systems of equations by graphing. Solve systems of equations by substitution. Solve systems of equations by addition. Identify inconsistent systems of equations containing two variables. Express the solution of a system of dependent equations containing two variables. Figure 1: (credit: Thomas Sørenes) Version 1.4: Dec 18, :24 am
2 OpenStaxCNX module: m A skateboard manufacturer introduces a new line of boards. The manufacturer tracks its costs, which is the amount it spends to produce the boards, and its revenue, which is the amount it earns through sales of its boards. How can the company determine if it is making a prot with its new line? How many skateboards must be produced and sold before a prot is possible? In this section, we will consider linear equations with two variables to answer these and similar questions. 1 Introduction to Systems of Equations In order to investigate situations such as that of the skateboard manufacturer, we need to recognize that we are dealing with more than one variable and likely more than one equation. A system of linear equations consists of two or more linear equations made up of two or more variables such that all equations in the system are considered simultaneously. To nd the unique solution to a system of linear equations, we must nd a numerical value for each variable in the system that will satisfy all equations in the system at the same time. Some linear systems may not have a solution and others may have an innite number of solutions. In order for a linear system to have a unique solution, there must be at least as many equations as there are variables. Even so, this does not guarantee a unique solution. In this section, we will look at systems of linear equations in two variables, which consist of two equations that contain two dierent variables. For example, consider the following system of linear equations in two variables. 2x + y = 15 3x y = 5 The solution to a system of linear equations in two variables is any ordered pair that satises each equation independently. In this example, the ordered pair (4, 7) is the solution to the system of linear equations. We can verify the solution by substituting the values into each equation to see if the ordered pair satises both equations. Shortly we will investigate methods of nding such a solution if it exists. 2 (4) + (7) = 15 True 3 (4) (7) = 5 True In addition to considering the number of equations and variables, we can categorize systems of linear equations by the number of solutions. A consistent system of equations has at least one solution. A consistent system is considered to be an independent system if it has a single solution, such as the example we just explored. The two lines have dierent slopes and intersect at one point in the plane. A consistent system is considered to be a dependent system if the equations have the same slope and the same yintercepts. In other words, the lines coincide so the equations represent the same line. Every point on the line represents a coordinate pair that satises the system. Thus, there are an innite number of solutions. Another type of system of linear equations is an inconsistent system, which is one in which the equations represent two parallel lines. The lines have the same slope and dierent yintercepts. There are no points common to both lines; hence, there is no solution to the system. A General Note: There are three types of systems of linear equations in two variables, and three types of solutions. An independent system has exactly one solution pair (x, y). The point where the two lines intersect is the only solution. An inconsistent system has no solution. Notice that the two lines are parallel and will never intersect. (1) (2)
3 OpenStaxCNX module: m A dependent system has innitely many solutions. The lines are coincident. They are the same line, so every coordinate pair on the line is a solution to both equations. Figure 2 compares graphical representations of each type of system. Figure 2 How To: Given a system of linear equations and an ordered pair, determine whether the ordered pair is a solution. 1.Substitute the ordered pair into each equation in the system. 2.Determine whether true statements result from the substitution in both equations; if so, the ordered pair is a solution. Example 1 Determining Whether an Ordered Pair Is a Solution to a System of Equations Determine whether the ordered pair (5, 1) is a solution to the given system of equations. x + 3y = 8 2x 9 = y Solution Substitute the ordered pair (5, 1) into both equations. (5) + 3 (1) = 8 8 = 8 True 2 (5) 9 = (1) 1=1 True (3) (4)
4 OpenStaxCNX module: m The ordered pair (5, 1) satises both equations, so it is the solution to the system. Analysis We can see the solution clearly by plotting the graph of each equation. Since the solution is an ordered pair that satises both equations, it is a point on both of the lines and thus the point of intersection of the two lines. See Figure 3. Figure 3 Try It: Exercise 2 (Solution on p. 33.) Determine whether the ordered pair (8, 5) is a solution to the following system. 5x 4y = 20 2x + 1 = 3y (5)
5 OpenStaxCNX module: m Solving Systems of Equations by Graphing There are multiple methods of solving systems of linear equations. For a system of linear equations in two variables, we can determine both the type of system and the solution by graphing the system of equations on the same set of axes. Example 2 Solving a System of Equations in Two Variables by Graphing Solve the following system of equations by graphing. Identify the type of system. Solution Solve the rst equation for y. 2x + y = 8 x y = 1 (6) Solve the second equation for y. 2x + y = 8 y = 2x 8 (7) x y = 1 y = x + 1 (8) Graph both equations on the same set of axes as in Figure 4.
6 OpenStaxCNX module: m Figure 4 The lines appear to intersect at the point ( 3, 2). We can check to make sure that this is the solution to the system by substituting the ordered pair into both equations. 2 ( 3) + ( 2) = 8 8 = 8 True ( 3) ( 2) = 1 1 = 1 True The solution to the system is the ordered pair ( 3, 2),so the system is independent. (9) Try It: Exercise 4 (Solution on p. 33.) Solve the following system of equations by graphing. 2x 5y = 25 4x + 5y = 35 (10)
7 OpenStaxCNX module: m Q&A: Can graphing be used if the system is inconsistent or dependent? Yes, in both cases we can still graph the system to determine the type of system and solution. If the two lines are parallel, the system has no solution and is inconsistent. If the two lines are identical, the system has innite solutions and is a dependent system. 3 Solving Systems of Equations by Substitution Solving a linear system in two variables by graphing works well when the solution consists of integer values, but if our solution contains decimals or fractions, it is not the most precise method. We will consider two more methods of solving a system of linear equations that are more precise than graphing. One such method is solving a system of equations by the substitution method, in which we solve one of the equations for one variable and then substitute the result into the second equation to solve for the second variable. Recall that we can solve for only one variable at a time, which is the reason the substitution method is both valuable and practical. How To: method. Given a system of two equations in two variables, solve using the substitution 1.Solve one of the two equations for one of the variables in terms of the other. 2.Substitute the expression for this variable into the second equation, then solve for the remaining variable. 3.Substitute that solution into either of the original equations to nd the value of the rst variable. If possible, write the solution as an ordered pair. 4.Check the solution in both equations. Example 3 Solving a System of Equations in Two Variables by Substitution Solve the following system of equations by substitution. x + y = 5 2x 5y = 1 Solution First, we will solve the rst equation for y. x + y = 5 y = x 5 Now we can substitute the expression x 5 for y in the second equation. 2x 5y = 1 2x 5 (x 5) = 1 2x 5x + 25 = 1 3x = 24 x = 8 (11) (12) (13)
8 OpenStaxCNX module: m Now, we substitute x = 8 into the rst equation and solve for y. (8) + y = 5 y = 3 Our solution is (8, 3). Check the solution by substituting (8, 3) into both equations. x + y = 5 (8) + (3) = 5 2x 5y = 1 True 2 (8) 5 (3) = 1 True (14) (15) Try It: Exercise 6 (Solution on p. 33.) Solve the following system of equations by substitution. x = y = 3x 2y (16) Q&A: Can the substitution method be used to solve any linear system in two variables? Yes, but the method works best if one of the equations contains a coecient of 1 or 1 so that we do not have to deal with fractions. 4 Solving Systems of Equations in Two Variables by the Addition Method A third method of solving systems of linear equations is the addition method. In this method, we add two terms with the same variable, but opposite coecients, so that the sum is zero. Of course, not all systems are set up with the two terms of one variable having opposite coecients. Often we must adjust one or both of the equations by multiplication so that one variable will be eliminated by addition. How To: Given a system of equations, solve using the addition method. 1.Write both equations with x and yvariables on the left side of the equal sign and constants on the right. 2.Write one equation above the other, lining up corresponding variables. If one of the variables in the top equation has the opposite coecient of the same variable in the bottom equation, add the equations together, eliminating one variable. If not, use multiplication by a nonzero number so that one of the variables in the top equation has the opposite coecient of the same variable in the bottom equation, then add the equations to eliminate the variable. 3.Solve the resulting equation for the remaining variable.
9 OpenStaxCNX module: m Substitute that value into one of the original equations and solve for the second variable. 5.Check the solution by substituting the values into the other equation. Example 4 Solving a System by the Addition Method Solve the given system of equations by addition. Solution x + 2y = 1 x + y = 3 Both equations are already set equal to a constant. Notice that the coecient of x in the second equation, 1, is the opposite of the coecient of x in the rst equation, 1. We can add the two equations to eliminate x without needing to multiply by a constant. (17) x + 2y = 1 x + y = 3 3y = 2 Now that we have eliminated x, we can solve the resulting equation for y. 3y = 2 y = 2 3 Then, we substitute this value for y into one of the original equations and solve for x. x + y = 3 x = 3 x = (18) (19) (20) x = 7 3 x = 7 3 The solution to this system is ( 7 3, 2 3). Check the solution in the rst equation. x + 2y = 1 ( ( 7 3) ) = = 3 3 = 1 = 1 True (21) Analysis We gain an important perspective on systems of equations by looking at the graphical representation. See Figure 5 to nd that the equations intersect at the solution. We do not need to ask
10 OpenStaxCNX module: m whether there may be a second solution because observing the graph conrms that the system has exactly one solution. Figure 5 Example 5 Using the Addition Method When Multiplication of One Equation Is Required Solve the given system of equations by the addition method. Solution 3x + 5y = 11 x 2y = 11 Adding these equations as presented will not eliminate a variable. However, we see that the rst equation has 3x in it and the second equation has x. So if we multiply the second equation by 3, the xterms will add to zero. (22) x 2y = 11 3 (x 2y) = 3 (11) Multiply both sides by 3. 3x + 6y = 33 Use the distributive property. (23)
11 OpenStaxCNX module: m Now, let's add them. 3x + 5y = 11 3x + 6y = 33 11y = 44 y = 4 (24) For the last step, we substitute y = 4 into one of the original equations and solve for x. 3x + 5y = 11 3x + 5 ( 4) = 11 3x 20 = 11 3x = 9 x = 3 (25) Our solution is the ordered pair (3, 4). See Figure 6. Check the solution in the original second equation. x 2y = 11 (3) 2 ( 4) = = 11 True (26)
12 OpenStaxCNX module: m Figure 6 Try It: Exercise 9 (Solution on p. 33.) Solve the system of equations by addition. 2x 7y = 2 3x + y = 20 (27) Example 6 Using the Addition Method When Multiplication of Both Equations Is Required Solve the given system of equations in two variables by addition. 2x + 3y = 16 5x 10y = 30 (28)
13 OpenStaxCNX module: m Solution One equation has 2x and the other has 5x. The least common multiple is 10x so we will have to multiply both equations by a constant in order to eliminate one variable. Let's eliminate x by multiplying the rst equation by 5 and the second equation by 2. 5 (2x + 3y) = 5 ( 16) 10x 15y = 80 2 (5x 10y) = 2 (30) 10x 20y = 60 Then, we add the two equations together. (29) 10x 15y = 80 10x 20y = 60 35y = 140 y = 4 Substitute y = 4 into the original rst equation. 2x + 3 ( 4) = 16 2x 12 = 16 2x = 4 x = 2 (30) (31) The solution is ( 2, 4). Check it in the other equation. See Figure 7. 5x 10y = 30 5 ( 2) 10 ( 4) = = = 30 (32)
14 OpenStaxCNX module: m Figure 7 Example 7 Using the Addition Method in Systems of Equations Containing Fractions Solve the given system of equations in two variables by addition. Solution x 3 + y 6 = 3 x 2 y 4 = 1 (33) First clear each equation of fractions by multiplying both sides of the equation by the least common denominator.
15 OpenStaxCNX module: m ( x 3 + y 6 ) = 6 (3) 2x + y = 18 4 ( x 2 y 4 ) = 4 (1) 2x y = 4 Now multiply the second equation by 1 so that we can eliminate the xvariable. 1 (2x y) = 1 (4) 2x + y = 4 Add the two equations to eliminate the xvariable and solve the resulting equation. Substitute y = 7 into the rst equation. 2x + y = 18 2x + y = 4 2y = 14 y = 7 2x + (7) = 18 2x = 11 x = 11 2 = 7.5 (34) (35) (36) (37) The solution is ( 11 2, 7). Check it in the other equation. x 2 y 4 = = = = 1 (38) Try It: Exercise 12 (Solution on p. 33.) Solve the system of equations by addition. 2x + 3y = 8 3x + 5y = 10 (39)
16 OpenStaxCNX module: m Identifying Inconsistent Systems of Equations Containing Two Variables Now that we have several methods for solving systems of equations, we can use the methods to identify inconsistent systems. Recall that an inconsistent system consists of parallel lines that have the same slope but dierent yintercepts. They will never intersect. When searching for a solution to an inconsistent system, we will come up with a false statement, such as 12 = 0. Example 8 Solving an Inconsistent System of Equations Solve the following system of equations. Solution x = 9 2y x + 2y = 13 We can approach this problem in two ways. Because one equation is already solved for x, the most obvious step is to use substitution. x + 2y = 13 (9 2y) + 2y = y = 13 9 = 13 Clearly, this statement is a contradiction because Therefore, the system has no solution. The second approach would be to rst manipulate the equations so that they are both in slopeintercept form. We manipulate the rst equation as follows. (40) (41) x = 9 2y 2y = x + 9 (42) y = 1 2 x We then convert the second equation expressed to slopeintercept form. x + 2y = 13 2y = x + 13 y = 1 2 x Comparing the equations, we see that they have the same slope but dierent yintercepts. Therefore, the lines are parallel and do not intersect. (43) y = 1 2 x y = 1 2 x (44) Analysis Writing the equations in slopeintercept form conrms that the system is inconsistent because all lines will intersect eventually unless they are parallel. Parallel lines will never intersect; thus, the
17 OpenStaxCNX module: m two lines have no points in common. The graphs of the equations in this example are shown in Figure 8. Figure 8 Try It: Exercise 14 (Solution on p. 33.) Solve the following system of equations in two variables. 2y 2x = 2 2y 2x = 6 (45) 6 Expressing the Solution of a System of Dependent Equations Containing Two Variables Recall that a dependent system of equations in two variables is a system in which the two equations represent the same line. Dependent systems have an innite number of solutions because all of the points
18 OpenStaxCNX module: m on one line are also on the other line. After using substitution or addition, the resulting equation will be an identity, such as 0 = 0. Example 9 Finding a Solution to a Dependent System of Linear Equations Find a solution to the system of equations using the addition method. Solution x + 3y = 2 3x + 9y = 6 With the addition method, we want to eliminate one of the variables by adding the equations. In this case, let's focus on eliminating x. If we multiply both sides of the rst equation by 3, then we will be able to eliminate the xvariable. (46) Now add the equations. x + 3y = 2 ( 3) (x + 3y) = ( 3) (2) 3x 9y = 6 (47) 3x 9y = 6 + 3x + 9y = 6 0 = 0 We can see that there will be an innite number of solutions that satisfy both equations. Analysis If we rewrote both equations in the slopeintercept form, we might know what the solution would look like before adding. Let's look at what happens when we convert the system to slopeintercept form. x + 3y = 2 3y = x + 2 (48) 3x + 9y = 6 y = 1 3 x y = 3x + 6 (49) y = 3 9 x y = 1 3 x See Figure 9. Notice the results are the same. The general solution to the system is ( x, 1 3 x + 2 3).
19 OpenStaxCNX module: m Figure 9 Try It: Exercise 16 (Solution on p. 33.) Solve the following system of equations in two variables. y 2x = 5 3y + 6x = 15 (50)
20 OpenStaxCNX module: m Using Systems of Equations to Investigate Prots Using what we have learned about systems of equations, we can return to the skateboard manufacturing problem at the beginning of the section. The skateboard manufacturer's revenue function is the function used to calculate the amount of money that comes into the business. It can be represented by the equation R = xp, where x =quantity and p =price. The revenue function is shown in orange in Figure 10. The cost function is the function used to calculate the costs of doing business. It includes xed costs, such as rent and salaries, and variable costs, such as utilities. The cost function is shown in blue in Figure 10. The xaxis represents quantity in hundreds of units. The yaxis represents either cost or revenue in hundreds of dollars. Figure 10 The point at which the two lines intersect is called the breakeven point. We can see from the graph that if 700 units are produced, the cost is $3,300 and the revenue is also $3,300. In other words, the company breaks even if they produce and sell 700 units. They neither make money nor lose money. The shaded region to the right of the breakeven point represents quantities for which the company makes a prot. The shaded region to the left represents quantities for which the company suers a loss. The prot function is the revenue function minus the cost function, written as P (x) = R (x) C (x). Clearly, knowing the quantity for which the cost equals the revenue is of great importance to businesses.
21 OpenStaxCNX module: m Example 10 Finding the BreakEven Point and the Prot Function Using Substitution Given the cost function C (x) = 0.85x + 35, 000 and the revenue function R (x) = 1.55x,nd the breakeven point and the prot function. Solution Write the system of equations using y to replace function notation. y = 0.85x + 35, 000 (51) y = 1.55x Substitute the expression 0.85x + 35, 000 from the rst equation into the second equation and solve for x. 0.85x + 35, 000 = 1.55x 35, 000 = 0.7x 50, 000 = x (52) Then, we substitute x = 50, 000 into either the cost function or the revenue function (50, 000) = 77, 500 (53) The breakeven point is (50, 000, 77, 500). The prot function is found using the formula P (x) = R (x) C (x). P (x) = 1.55x (0.85x + 35, 000) = 0.7x 35, 000 (54) The prot function is P (x) = 0.7x 35, 000. Analysis The cost to produce 50,000 units is $77,500, and the revenue from the sales of 50,000 units is also $77,500. To make a prot, the business must produce and sell more than 50,000 units. See Figure 11.
22 OpenStaxCNX module: m Figure 11 We see from the graph in Figure 12 that the prot function has a negative value until x = 50, 000, when the graph crosses the xaxis. Then, the graph emerges into positive yvalues and continues on this path as the prot function is a straight line. This illustrates that the breakeven point for businesses occurs when the prot function is 0. The area to the left of the breakeven point represents operating at a loss.
23 OpenStaxCNX module: m Figure 12 Example 11 Writing and Solving a System of Equations in Two Variables The cost of a ticket to the circus is $25.00 for children and $50.00 for adults. On a certain day, attendance at the circus is 2, 000 and the total gate revenue is $70, 000. How many children and how many adults bought tickets? Solution Let c = the number of children and a = the number of adults in attendance. The total number of people is 2, 000. We can use this to write an equation for the number of people at the circus that day. c + a = 2, 000 (55) The revenue from all children can be found by multiplying $25.00 by the number of children, 25c. The revenue from all adults can be found by multiplying $50.00 by the number of adults, 50a. The total revenue is$70, 000. We can use this to write an equation for the revenue. 25c + 50a = 70, 000 (56)
24 OpenStaxCNX module: m We now have a system of linear equations in two variables. c + a = 2, c + 50a = 70, 000 In the rst equation, the coecient of both variables is 1. We can quickly solve the rst equation for either c or a. We will solve for a. (57) c + a = 2, 000 a = 2, 000 c Substitute the expression 2, 000 c in the second equation for a and solve for c. 25c + 50 (2, 000 c) = 70, c + 100, c = 70, c = 30, 000 c = 1, 200 Substitute c = 1, 200 into the rst equation to solve for a. 1, a = 2, 000 a = 800 We nd that 1, 200 children and 800 adults bought tickets to the circus that day. (58) (59) (60) Try It: Exercise 19 (Solution on p. 33.) Meal tickets at the circus cost $4.00 for children and $12.00 for adults. If 1, 650 meal tickets were bought for a total of $14, 200, how many children and how many adults bought meal tickets? Media: Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with systems of linear equations. Solving Systems of Equations Using Substitution 1 Solving Systems of Equations Using Elimination 2 Applications of Systems of Equations
25 OpenStaxCNX module: m Key Concepts A system of linear equations consists of two or more equations made up of two or more variables such that all equations in the system are considered simultaneously. The solution to a system of linear equations in two variables is any ordered pair that satises each equation independently. See Example 1. Systems of equations are classied as independent with one solution, dependent with an innite number of solutions, or inconsistent with no solution. One method of solving a system of linear equations in two variables is by graphing. In this method, we graph the equations on the same set of axes. See Example 2. Another method of solving a system of linear equations is by substitution. In this method, we solve for one variable in one equation and substitute the result into the second equation. See Example 3. A third method of solving a system of linear equations is by addition, in which we can eliminate a variable by adding opposite coecients of corresponding variables. See Example 4. It is often necessary to multiply one or both equations by a constant to facilitate elimination of a variable when adding the two equations together. See Example 5, Example 6, and Example 7. Either method of solving a system of equations results in a false statement for inconsistent systems because they are made up of parallel lines that never intersect. See Example 8. The solution to a system of dependent equations will always be true because both equations describe the same line. See Example 9. Systems of equations can be used to solve realworld problems that involve more than one variable, such as those relating to revenue, cost, and prot. See Example 10 and Example Section Exercises 9.1 Verbal Exercise 20 (Solution on p. 33.) Can a system of linear equations have exactly two solutions? Explain why or why not. Exercise 21 If you are performing a breakeven analysis for a business and their cost and revenue equations are dependent, explain what this means for the company's prot margins. Exercise 22 (Solution on p. 34.) If you are solving a breakeven analysis and get a negative breakeven point, explain what this signies for the company? Exercise 23 If you are solving a breakeven analysis and there is no breakeven point, explain what this means for the company. How should they ensure there is a breakeven point? Exercise 24 (Solution on p. 34.) Given a system of equations, explain at least two dierent methods of solving that system. 9.2 Algebraic For the following exercises, determine whether the given ordered pair is a solution to the system of equations. Exercise 25 5x y = 4 and (4, 0) x + 6y = 2
26 OpenStaxCNX module: m Exercise 26 (Solution on p. 34.) 3x 5y = 13 and( 6, 1) x + 4y = 10 Exercise 27 3x + 7y = 1 and (2, 3) 2x + 4y = 0 Exercise 28 (Solution on p. 34.) 2x + 5y = 7 and( 1, 1) 2x + 9y = 7 Exercise 29 x + 8y = 43 and (3, 5) 3x 2y = 1 For the following exercises, solve each system by substitution. Exercise 30 (Solution on p. 34.) x + 3y = 5 2x + 3y = 4 Exercise 31 3x 2y = 18 5x + 10y = 10 Exercise 32 (Solution on p. 34.) 4x + 2y = 10 3x + 9y = 0 Exercise 33 2x + 4y = 3.8 9x 5y = 1.3 Exercise 34 (Solution on p. 34.) 2x + 3y = 1.2 3x 6y = 1.8 Exercise 35 x 0.2y = 1 10x + 2y = 5 Exercise 36 (Solution on p. 34.) 3x + 5y = 9 30x + 50y = 90
27 OpenStaxCNX module: m Exercise 37 3x + y = 2 12x 4y = 8 Exercise 38 (Solution on p. 34.) 1 2 x y = x y = 9 Exercise x y = x y = 3 For the following exercises, solve each system by addition. Exercise 40 (Solution on p. 34.) 2x + 5y = 42 7x + 2y = 30 Exercise 41 6x 5y = 34 2x + 6y = 4 Exercise 42 (Solution on p. 34.) 5x y = 2.6 4x 6y = 1.4 Exercise 43 7x 2y = 3 4x + 5y = 3.25 Exercise 44 (Solution on p. 34.) x + 2y = 1 5x 10y = 6 Exercise 45 7x + 6y = 2 28x 24y = 8 Exercise 46 (Solution on p. 34.) 5 6 x y = x 1 2 y = Exercise x y = x y = 1 3
28 OpenStaxCNX module: m Exercise 48 (Solution on p. 34.) 0.2x + 0.4y = 0.6 x 2y = 3 Exercise x + 0.2y = 0.6 5x 10y = 1 For the following exercises, solve each system by any method. Exercise 50 (Solution on p. 34.) 5x + 9y = 16 x + 2y = 4 Exercise 51 6x 8y = 0.6 3x + 2y = 0.9 Exercise 52 (Solution on p. 34.) 5x 2y = x 4y = 3 Exercise 53 x 5 12 y = x y = 55 2 Exercise 54 (Solution on p. 34.) 7x 4y = 7 6 2x + 4y = 1 3 Exercise 55 3x + 6y = 11 2x + 4y = 9 Exercise 56 (Solution on p. 34.) 7 3 x 1 6 y = x y = 3 Exercise x y = x y = 1 8 Exercise 58 (Solution on p. 34.) 2.2x + 1.3y = x + 4.2y = 2.1
29 OpenStaxCNX module: m Exercise x + 0.2y = x 0.3y = Graphical For the following exercises, graph the system of equations and state whether the system is consistent, inconsistent, or dependent and whether the system has one solution, no solution, or innite solutions. Exercise 60 (Solution on p. 34.) 3x y = 0.6 x 2y = 1.3 Exercise 61 x + 2y = 4 2x 4y = 1 Exercise 62 (Solution on p. 34.) x + 2y = 7 2x + 6y = 12 Exercise 63 3x 5y = 7 x 2y = 3 Exercise 64 (Solution on p. 34.) 3x 2y = 5 9x + 6y = Technology For the following exercises, use the intersect function on a graphing device to solve each system. Round all answers to the nearest hundredth. Exercise x + 0.2y = x + 0.5y = 1 Exercise 66 (Solution on p. 34.) 0.01x y = x y = 0.52 Exercise x + 0.3y = x 0.9y = 0.46
30 OpenStaxCNX module: m Exercise 68 (Solution on p. 34.) 0.15x y = x y = 1.8 Exercise x y = x y = Extensions For the following exercises, solve each system in terms of A, B, C, D, E, and F where A F are nonzero numbers. Note that A B and AE BD. Exercise 70 (Solution on p. 34.) x + y = A x y = B Exercise 71 x + Ay = 1 x + By = 1 Exercise 72 (Solution on p. 35.) Ax + y = 0 Bx + y = 1 Exercise 73 Ax + By = C x + y = 1 Exercise 74 (Solution on p. 35.) Ax + By = C Dx + Ey = F 9.6 RealWorld Applications For the following exercises, solve for the desired quantity. Exercise 75 A stued animal business has a total cost of production C = 12x + 30 and a revenue function R = 20x. Find the breakeven point. Exercise 76 (Solution on p. 35.) A fastfood restaurant has a cost of production C (x) = 11x and a revenue function R (x) = 5x. When does the company start to turn a prot? Exercise 77 A cell phone factory has a cost of production C (x) = 150x+10, 000 and a revenue function R (x) = 200x. What is the breakeven point?
31 OpenStaxCNX module: m Exercise 78 (Solution on p. 35.) A musician charges C (x) = 64x + 20, 000, where x is the total number of attendees at the concert. The venue charges $80 per ticket. After how many people buy tickets does the venue break even, and what is the value of the total tickets sold at that point? Exercise 79 A guitar factory has a cost of production C (x) = 75x+50, 000. If the company needs to break even after 150 units sold, at what price should they sell each guitar? Round up to the nearest dollar, and write the revenue function. For the following exercises, use a system of linear equations with two variables and two equations to solve. Exercise 80 (Solution on p. 35.) Find two numbers whose sum is 28 and dierence is 13. Exercise 81 A number is 9 more than another number. Twice the sum of the two numbers is 10. Find the two numbers. Exercise 82 (Solution on p. 35.) The startup cost for a restaurant is $120,000, and each meal costs $10 for the restaurant to make. If each meal is then sold for $15, after how many meals does the restaurant break even? Exercise 83 A moving company charges a at rate of $150, and an additional $5 for each box. If a taxi service would charge $20 for each box, how many boxes would you need for it to be cheaper to use the moving company, and what would be the total cost? Exercise 84 (Solution on p. 35.) A total of 1,595 rst and secondyear college students gathered at a pep rally. The number of freshmen exceeded the number of sophomores by 15. How many freshmen and sophomores were in attendance? Exercise students enrolled in a freshmanlevel chemistry class. By the end of the semester, 5 times the number of students passed as failed. Find the number of students who passed, and the number of students who failed. Exercise 86 (Solution on p. 35.) There were 130 faculty at a conference. If there were 18 more women than men attending, how many of each gender attended the conference? Exercise 87 A jeep and BMW enter a highway running eastwest at the same exit heading in opposite directions. The jeep entered the highway 30 minutes before the BMW did, and traveled 7 mph slower than the BMW. After 2 hours from the time the BMW entered the highway, the cars were miles apart. Find the speed of each car, assuming they were driven on cruise control. Exercise 88 (Solution on p. 35.) If a scientist mixed 10% saline solution with 60% saline solution to get 25 gallons of 40% saline solution, how many gallons of 10% and 60% solutions were mixed? Exercise 89 An investor earned triple the prots of what she earned last year. If she made $500, total for both years, how much did she earn in prots each year? Exercise 90 (Solution on p. 35.) An investor who dabbles in real estate invested 1.1 million dollars into two land investments. On the rst investment, Swan Peak, her return was a 110% increase on the money she invested. On the second investment, Riverside Community, she earned 50% over what she invested. If she earned $1 million in prots, how much did she invest in each of the land deals?
32 OpenStaxCNX module: m Exercise 91 If an investor invests a total of $25,000 into two bonds, one that pays 3% simple interest, and the other that pays % interest, and the investor earns $ annual interest, how much was invested in each account? Exercise 92 (Solution on p. 35.) If an investor invests $23,000 into two bonds, one that pays 4% in simple interest, and the other paying 2% simple interest, and the investor earns $ annual interest, how much was invested in each account? Exercise 93 CDs cost $5.96 more than DVDs at All Bets Are O Electronics. How much would 6 CDs and 2 DVDs cost if 5 CDs and 2 DVDs cost $127.73? Exercise 94 (Solution on p. 35.) A store clerk sold 60 pairs of sneakers. The hightops sold for $98.99 and the lowtops sold for $ If the receipts for the two types of sales totaled $6,404.40, how many of each type of sneaker were sold? Exercise 95 A concert manager counted 350 ticket receipts the day after a concert. The price for a student ticket was $12.50, and the price for an adult ticket was $ The register conrms that $5,075 was taken in. How many student tickets and adult tickets were sold? Exercise 96 (Solution on p. 35.) Admission into an amusement park for 4 children and 2 adults is $ For 6 children and 3 adults, the admission is $ Assuming a dierent price for children and adults, what is the price of the child's ticket and the price of the adult ticket?
33 OpenStaxCNX module: m Solutions to Exercises in this Module Solution to Exercise (p. 4) Not a solution. Solution to Exercise (p. 6) The solution to the system is the ordered pair ( 5, 3). Solution to Exercise (p. 8) ( 2, 5) Solution to Exercise (p. 12) ( 6, 2) Solution to Exercise (p. 15) (10, 4) Solution to Exercise (p. 17) No solution. It is an inconsistent system. Solution to Exercise (p. 19) The system is dependent so there are innite solutions of the form (x, 2x + 5). Solution to Exercise (p. 24) 700 children, 950 adults
34 OpenStaxCNX module: m Solution to Exercise (p. 25) No, you can either have zero, one, or innitely many. Examine graphs. Solution to Exercise (p. 25) This means there is no realistic breakeven point. By the time the company produces one unit they are already making prot. Solution to Exercise (p. 25) You can solve by substitution (isolating x or y ), graphically, or by addition. Solution to Exercise (p. 25) Yes Solution to Exercise (p. 26) Yes Solution to Exercise (p. 26) ( 1, 2) Solution to Exercise (p. 26) ( 3, 1) Solution ( to Exercise (p. 26) 3 5, 0) Solution to Exercise (p. 26) No solutions exist. Solution) to Exercise (p. 27) ( 72 5, Solution to Exercise (p. 27) (6, 6) Solution to Exercise (p. 27) ( 1 2, 1 10 ) Solution to Exercise (p. 27) No solutions exist. Solution ( to Exercise (p. 27) 1 5, ) 2 3 Solution ( ) to Exercise (p. 27) x, x+3 2 Solution to Exercise (p. 28) ( 4, 4) Solution ( to Exercise (p. 28) 1 2, 8) 1 Solution ( to Exercise (p. 28) 1 6, 0) Solution to Exercise (p. 28) (x, 2 (7x 6)) Solution ( to Exercise (p. 28) 5 6, ) 4 3 Solution to Exercise (p. 29) Consistent with one solution Solution to Exercise (p. 29) Consistent with one solution Solution to Exercise (p. 29) Dependent with innitely many solutions Solution to Exercise (p. 29) ( 3.08, 4.91) Solution to Exercise (p. 29) ( 1.52, 2.29)
35 OpenStaxCNX module: m Solution to) Exercise (p. 30) ( A+B 2, A B 2 Solution ( to) Exercise (p. 30) 1 A B, A A B Solution ( to Exercise ) (p. 30) CE BF BD AE, AF CD BD AE Solution to Exercise (p. 30) They never turn a prot. Solution to Exercise (p. 31) (1, 250, 100, 000) Solution to Exercise (p. 31) The numbers are 7.5 and Solution to Exercise (p. 31) 24,000 Solution to Exercise (p. 31) 790 sophomores, 805 freshman Solution to Exercise (p. 31) 56 men, 74 women Solution to Exercise (p. 31) 10 gallons of 10% solution, 15 gallons of 60% solution Solution to Exercise (p. 31) Swan Peak: $750,000, Riverside: $350,000 Solution to Exercise (p. 32) $12,500 in the rst account, $10,500 in the second account. Solution to Exercise (p. 32) Hightops: 45, Lowtops: 15 Solution to Exercise (p. 32) Innitely many solutions. We need more information. Glossary Denition 1: addition method an algebraic technique used to solve systems of linear equations in which the equations are added in a way that eliminates one variable, allowing the resulting equation to be solved for the remaining variable; substitution is then used to solve for the rst variable Denition 2: breakeven point the point at which a cost function intersects a revenue function; where prot is zero Denition 3: consistent system a system for which there is a single solution to all equations in the system and it is an independent system, or if there are an innite number of solutions and it is a dependent system Denition 4: cost function the function used to calculate the costs of doing business; it usually has two parts, xed costs and variable costs Denition 5: dependent system a system of linear equations in which the two equations represent the same line; there are an innite number of solutions to a dependent system
36 OpenStaxCNX module: m Denition 6: inconsistent system a system of linear equations with no common solution because they represent parallel lines, which have no point or line in common Denition 7: independent system a system of linear equations with exactly one solution pair (x, y) Denition 8: prot function the prot function is written as P (x) = R (x) C (x),revenue minus cost Denition 9: revenue function the function that is used to calculate revenue, simply written as R = xp,where x = quantity and p = price Denition 10: substitution method an algebraic technique used to solve systems of linear equations in which one of the two equations is solved for one variable and then substituted into the second equation to solve for the second variable Denition 11: system of linear equations a set of two or more equations in two or more variables that must be considered simultaneously.
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